Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.
Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.
The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behavior of the learners.
The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.
Lesson: Functional Verbs (Modals 2)
In the previous lesson, we discussed some functional verbs. In this lesson, we shall continue to explain the verbs here to indicate the functions of obligation, advice, permission, probability, and tenses.
(i) Should is used to express obligation, e.g.
Every J.S.S. student should come to school tomorrow. (Obligation)
(ii) At times, it is used in place of ‘would’ in the first person, e.g.
I should like to see you tomorrow. (As would)
(iii) It is used to indicate advice, e.g.
You should stop visiting him. (Advice)
(i) May is used to showing permission, e.g.
May I come in? (Permission)
(ii) It is used to indicate probability, e.g.
He may not get there tonight. (Probability)
(i) Might be used to show permission, e.g.
You might use my bed if you like. (Permission)
(ii) It is used to express probability, e.g.
I might not see you tomorrow. (Probability)
In this lesson, we have learned some functional verbs that discuss permission, probability, advice, obligation, and tenses. We shall continue to discuss further functional words in the next lesson.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Functional Verbs (Modals 3)
In the previous lesson, we discussed more functional verbs, In this lesson, we shall continue to discuss the verbs here that indicate the functions of ability, agreement, future, permission, direct speech and obligation, inference, o, order and compulsion.
(i) Can is used to indicate ability, e.g.
I can speak English eloquently. (Ability)
(ii) It is used to express a lack of opposition or agreement, e.g.
You can use my textbook. (Agreement)
(iii) It is used to express future action, e.g.
I can see you in two days. (Future)
(iv) It is used to ask for permission.
Can I go there? (Permission)
(i) Could be used for past ability, e.g.
Some years ago, I could read without wearing a pair of glasses. (Past ability)
(ii) Could be used to ask for permission, e.g.
Could I go there? (Ask for permission)
(iii) Can often become could in past direct speech, e.g.
Bolaji told me, ‘She could not marry a tall man.’ (Past direct speech)
(iv) It is used to express possibilities from other engagements, e.g.
I could attend your birthday by 10 a.m. next Monday.
(i) Must is used to indicate compulsion or obligation, e.g.
All students must be here tomorrow. (Compulsion)
(ii) It is used to express order, e.g.
You must stand up. (Order)
(iii) It is used to show a strong probability, e.g.
My uncle must be almost 50 years of age.
(iv) It is used to make an inference, e.g.
He must be having headaches. (Inference)
In this lesson, we have learned some functional verbs that discuss inferences, order, obligation, direct speech, probability, ability, permission, agreement, etc. We shall continue to discuss further functional words in the next lesson.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Functional Verbs (Modals 4)
In the previous lesson, we discussed more functional verbs, In this lesson, we shall continue to discuss the verbs here that indicate the functions of advice, formal condition permission, obligation, criticism, and compulsion.
(i) Ought to is used to give advice, e.g.
Children ought to respect their elders. (Advice)
(ii) Ought to is also used to express criticism or obligation, e.g.
The students ought to listen more attentively in the classroom than they used to. (Criticism)
(i) Need, as a modal auxiliary, is used to express advice, e.g.
You need not abuse her when weary. (Advice)
(ii) Needn’t is used to give permission not to do something, e.g.
You needn’t wait for me, go alone. (Permission to…)
(iii) Need is used as a full verb, e.g.
I need a glass of water.
You need to flush that water closet before you defecate.
When ‘need’ is used as a modal auxiliary, it will not be followed by ‘to-infinitive’ and it will not be inflected either as dares, needs, or needed/dared. For example:
- You needn’t follow me. Not
‘You needn’t (to) follow me’
When ‘need’ is used as a negative form, you will not use ‘to-infinitive’ with it.
When ‘need’ is used as a full verb, the ‘to-infinitive’, ‘-s inflection’ and past forms will be used.
(i) He needs a pair of trousers.
(ii) You need to wash those clothes.
(i) Dare is used to express a challenge. The modal auxiliary (dare) is mainly restricted to negative and interrogative sentences. For example:
He dare not react that way.
(ii) It is used as a full verb. For example:
I didn’t dare come here.
(i) Used to is used to show former condition, e.g.
For the past three years, I used to drink beer. (Former condition)
In this lesson, we have learned some functional verbs that discuss formal conditions, obligation, permission, advice, etc.
Topic: Relative Pronouns
Lesson: The Concept of Relative Pronouns
Do you know that a cutlass cannot only cut grasses but can also be used to dig the floor? So also, the words ‘which, who, what, whose, where, whom, etc. cannot only ask the questions but can also be used to mark the clauses.
If such words are used within the clauses, they are relative clauses. Consider the illustrations below.
Though both interrogative pronouns and relative pronouns share the same examples in some respect, they are used differently.
The interrogative pronouns ask questions and occur only at the beginning of a sentence while the
relative pronouns define the noun they follow and they occur in the middle of a sentence.
Compare the following sentences:
(i) Which do you prefer? (Interrogative pronoun)
(ii) I have found the pen which you gave me. (Relative pronoun)
(iii) Who are you? (Interrogative pronoun)
(iv) I saw the boy who stole my money. (Relative pronoun)
As said earlier, ‘which’ and ‘who’ in sentences (1) and (iii) are interrogative pronouns because they begin the sentences to ask questions.
But ‘which’ and ‘who’ in sentences (ii) and (iv) are relative pronouns because they occur within the sentences to qualify the nouns – ‘pen’ and ‘boy’ respectively.
In this lesson, we have learned that a relative pronoun is described as a pronoun used to mark the start of relative/adjectival clauses.
They normally follow the immediate nouns they qualify for in the middle of a sentence. Some of the relative pronouns include who, which, whom, whose, what, what, etc. We shall continue in the next lessons
Topic: Relative Pronouns
Lesson: Essential Tips to Note in Relative Pronouns
Do you know that nothing exists without the essence of its existence? Man exists because he is essential; our head exists to think; our eyes exist to see; our legs exist to walk; our nose exists to breathe and our mouth exists to eat.
So also, we have to understand essential facts about how relative pronouns exist.
It should be noted that the relative pronoun is realized under the following three types: human, non-human, and both.
‘Whom’, ‘who’ and ‘whose’ can define or qualify ‘humans’ while ‘which’ and ‘where’ can define or qualify ‘non-humans’ and ‘that’ can define or qualify both ‘humans’ and ‘non-humans’.
Let us compare the following sentences:
(i) The man whose car is stolen is my brother. (human)
(ii) The pen which you lent me is lost. (non-human)
(iii) The book that I gave you is good. (non-human)
(iv) The girl that I discussed with you. (human)
In the examples above, whose is followed by the noun – car, which is followed by the noun, – pen, and that is followed by the noun – book and girl.
In this lesson, we have learned some essential tips in relative pronouns that enhance knowledge in the use of their examples.