Lesson Notes for Modern-Day Teaching

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Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.

Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.

The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behaviour of the learners.

The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.

 Script 1

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: The Concept of Auxiliary Verbs

 Introduction

A car depends on fuel to move; a tree depends on water to survive; a man depends on air to breathe and children depend on their parents to be satisfied because those things serve as helpers for them.

So, auxiliary verbs depend on other verbs to be meaningful. Auxiliary verbs help serve as helpers for other verbs to be meaningful.

 Presentation

Auxiliary verbs (especially verbs BE and verb Have cannot stand alone to convey meaning in the sentences unless they are used with lexical verbs. Look at the illustration below.

In the sentences ‘He is playing football’ and ‘They have gone there, the auxiliary verbs ‘is’ and ‘have’ cannot convey meaning unless ‘is’ is used with the lexical verb playing and ‘have’ is used with the lexical verb ‘gone’.

Progression

In some cases, the auxiliary verbs ‘is’, ‘was’, ‘are’ and ‘were’ can stand alone in the sentences, but they cannot convey meaning themselves. Look at the illustration below.

 ‘Was’ in the sentence ‘Michael was a boy’ is an auxiliary verb functioning as the main verb in that sentence but was itself cannot convey meaning unless it is used in a sentence.

 Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that an auxiliary verb is synonymous with a helping verb. It is a

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type of the verb which cannot stand alone unless it depends on lexical verb(s) for meaning.

Script 2

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Classes of Auxiliary Verbs

Introduction

I love shoes. I went to the market to buy different classes of shoes. The classes of shoes I bought are leather shoes, sneakers and tennis shoes.  The shoes are beautiful and they are used to walk around

So, auxiliary verbs have two classes, namely primary auxiliary verbs and modal auxiliary verbs. Both auxiliary verbs are used to help main verbs to convey meaning.

Presentation

A primary auxiliary verb is also known as a non-modal auxiliary verb. It is assessed as a kind of verb consisting of ‘verbs + Be’, ‘verbs + Have’ and ‘verbs + Do.’ It can also function as tenses (present tense and past tense) and numbers (singulars and plurals) in the sentences.

Progression

The verbs are ‘is/am, was, are, were, and have. has, had, do/does, did, been, being, be etc. Consider the examples in the sentences below.

  • I am leaving for abroad tomorrow.
  • The snake was hissing under the grass.
  • The protagonist is being assassinated in the play
  • The chairman has earmarked N2bn for the project.
  • Those politicians have milked almost N25n from the government purse.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that the classes of auxiliary verbs are primary auxiliary verbs and modal auxiliary verbs.

We also learnt that A primary auxiliary verb is also known as a non-modal auxiliary verb. It is assessed as a kind of verb consisting of ‘verbs + Be’, ‘verbs + Have’ and ‘verbs + Do.’

Script 3

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Modal Auxiliary Verbs

 Introduction

Can you give advice or give an order? Can you make suggestions or express your ability? How can you seek permission or show probability?

Will you be able to indicate a future or agreement? How about the willingness, request and conditional? The verbs that are used to express all these are modal auxiliary verbs.

Presentation

The modal auxiliary verbs are ‘will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, can, could, dare, ought to, need not, etc. Consider the following examples in the sentences below.

  1. If I get home, I will read before I sleep. (Willingness)
  2. Will you assist me to wash those plates? (Request)
  3. Shall we sit down? (Offer)
  4. You should stop visiting him. (Advice)
  5. I can speak English eloquently. (Ability

The examples in the sentences above indicate a willingness, request, offer, advice and ability

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Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that a modal auxiliary verb can be assessed as a kind of verb which helps lexical verbs and also performs certain grammatical functions in the sentences.

For example, the modal auxiliary verb ‘must’ indicate compulsion or order. 

Script 4

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: The Concept of Regular Verbs

Introduction

Do you know that I can form the shapes if put certain objects together? That is to form things, we have to bend, add or reduce.

Do you know that we can form other types of verbs from particular verbs? For example, we form past and particle forms of verbs from present form.

Presentation

A regular verb is one a verb form which has a base, past form and participle form. The past form and participle form contain the final ‘ed’. The examples are given in the table below.

Base(s) Past forms Participle forms
Sack

Mark

Pick

Call

Divided

Sacked

Marked

Picked

Called

Divided

 

Sacked

Marked

Picked

Called

Divided

Progression

‘In the table above, the past and participle forms of ‘sack’ are ‘sacked’; the past and participle forms of ‘mark’ are ‘marked’; the past and participle forms of ‘pick’ are ‘picked’; the past and participle forms of ‘call’ are ‘called’ and past and participle forms of ‘divide’ are ‘divided’.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that a regular verb is a class of lexical verbs containing the final -‘ed’ in the past form and participle form. We shall continue to discuss the uses of regular verbs in the next lesson.

Script 5

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Uses of Regular Verbs

Introduction

Every single thing has how it is used. A computer has it is used; a motorcycle has how it is used; a book has how it is used; a phone has it is used and our body wants to be used perfectly. So, a regular verb has how it is used for perfect communication.

 To know how regular verbs are classified is not enough but how they are used in the sentences. Study the following sentences:

Presentation

Regular verbs can be used as past forms in the sentences. For example:

(i)         The Senate President addressed Nigerians yesterday.

(ii)        A panel interviewed the applicants.

Regular verbs can be used to express participle form or perfective form in sentences. For example:

(i)         The boy answered me satisfactorily.

(ii)        Some politicians have squandered the public money.

Regular verbs are used to indicate the future perfective forms. For example:

(i)         I will have called you.

(iii)       My father would have discussed it with you.

 

Regular verbs are used as passive forms. For example:

(i)         An indolent employee has been fired.

(ii)        The missing money was searched for.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt the uses of regular verbs in which we understand more how regular verbs are formed and understood. We shall continue to discuss irregular verbs.

Script

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson:  The Concept of Irregular Verbs

 Introduction

If rain is irregular, it means that it is not consistent. Anything that is not regular is not fixed.  So, irregular verbs are not fixed. They change according to the tenses.

 Presentation

In regular verbs, decide can change to decided in both past form and participle form. However, in irregular verbs, the bite can change to a bit in the past form and bitten in the participle form.

Also, in irregular verbs, ran changes to run in the past and participle forms and come changes to came in the past form and come in the participle form. For the reason above, regular and irregular verbs are differently formed.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that an irregular verb is a type of lexical verb that conveys main meanings in well-formed sentences.

Irregular verbs do not contain the final ‘ed’ but change according to the tenses. We shall continue to discuss how irregular verbs are formed in the next lesson.

 

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