How to Prepare Lesson Notes for Classroom Teaching

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Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.

Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.

The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behaviour of the learners.

The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.

 Script 1

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Features of Irregular Verbs

 Introduction

A house has different rooms: bedroom, bathroom, sitting room restroom and so on. So also, irregular verbs have different features in how they are formed and used in the language. Consider the following features below.

Presentation

Both past form and participle form of the irregular verbs vary; they change as they are used in the sentences. Consider the following table:

Present forms (Base) Past forms Participle forms
Shake

Eat

Drive

Tear

Blow

Bite

Hide

Lie

Grow

Write

Rise

Draw

Go

Give

Fly

Do

Shook

Eat

Drove

Tore

Blew

Bit

Hid

Lay

Grew

Wrote

Rose

Drew

Went

Gave

Flew

Did

Shaken

Eaten

Driven

Torn

Blown

Bitten

Hidden

Lain

Grown

Written

Risen

Drown

Gone

Given

Flown

Done

The question is this: Are past and participle forms the same in usage? Let’s examine the sentences below.

(i)         That boy hid himself behind the shelf. (Past form)

(ii)        Bola has carelessly torn her cloth. (Participle form)

 Progression

In the examples above, the verb hid is used independently without being preceded by any other verbs. But the verb torn is preceded by the auxiliary has. You should understand that the participle forms or perfective forms are used with one or more auxiliaries while the past forms of verbs are not.

It is, therefore, wrong to say:

(i)         ‘That boy has hid himself …’

(ii)        ‘Bola has carelessly tore/tear/teared her cloth.

‘Tear’ is the present tense; it cannot follow or be used with auxiliary – ‘has’, ‘have’ and ‘had’. Also ‘teared’ does not exist as the past form or participle form.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that the past form and participle form of the irregular verbs vary; they change as they are used in the sentences. We shall continue to discuss more features of irregular verbs in the next lesson.

Script 2

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Features of Irregular Verbs

 Introduction

In the previous lesson, we discussed how the first feature of irregular verbs is formed. We shall discuss the second feature in this lesson.

Presentation

Both past form and participle form of the following irregular verbs are similar or identical but

they are used differently in the sentences. Consider the following table:

Present forms (Base) Past forms Participle forms
Meet

Flee

Deal

Lay

Catch

Bend

Tell

Leave

Teach

Bleed

Build

Buy

Met

Fled

Dealt

Laid

Caught

Bent

Told

Left

Taught

Bled

Built

Bought

Met

Fled

Dealt

Laid

Caught

Bent

Told

Left

Taught

Bled

Built

Bought

Progression

The question is this: Are past and participle forms similar in form? Let us consider their uses in the sentences.

(i)         I bought a 505 Peugeot car yesterday. (Past form)

(ii)        We have bought our school bags. (Participle form)

Bought in the first sentence is not used with the auxiliary verb but bought in the second sentence is used with the auxiliary – have.

Hence, the first bought indicates the past form through the adverbial – ‘yesterday’. The second bought indicates the participle form using the auxiliary – ‘have’. But, don’t say:

‘We have bought a 505 Peugeot car yesterday.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that the past form and participle form of the following irregular verbs

are similar or identical but they are used differently in the sentences. We shall continue to

discuss more features in the next lesson.

Script 3

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Features of Irregular Verbs (3)

 Introduction

In the previous lesson, we discussed how the first feature of irregular verbs is formed. We shall discuss the third feature in this lesson.

Presentation

The present form, past form and perciform form have different meanings here as used in the sentences. It is important if we can take note of the following words in the table:

Present forms (Base) Past forms Participle forms Meanings
Lie

Lay

Lay

Laid

Lain

Laid

To lie (man)

To lay (eggs)

Consider the examples below.

(i)         I lay on the mat reading yesterday. (Past form)

(ii)        We have lain in bed to rest. (Participle form)

(iii)       My hen lays an egg daily. (Present form)

(iv)       My hen laid two eggs yesterday. (Past form)

(v)        My hen has laid ten eggs. (Participle form)

 Progression

When we are talking about maa n who lies down or other things whether on the mat or the bed to ‘sleep’ or ‘rest’, then lay as the past form and lain as the participle form should be used.

But when we are talking about a hen or a bird who lays eggs, then ‘lay’ as the present form and ‘laid’ as both past form and participle form should be used.

But, it is wrong to say:

(i)         *My hen has lain ten eggs.

(ii)        *I laid on the mat yesterday.

(iii)       *He has laid on the bed to rest.

(iv)       *That dove had lain four eggs.

(v)        *The woman lay on bed to rest.

The past form lied means ‘not to tell the truth’. It does not mean putting herself in a vertical or horizontal position to sleep or rest.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that the present form, past form and participle for have different meanings here as used in the sentences. We shall continue to discuss more features in the next lesson.

Script 4

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Features of Irregular Verbs

 Introduction

In the previous lesson, we discussed how the first feature of irregular verbs is formed. We shall discuss the fourth feature in this lesson.

Presentation

Here both the present form (base) and participle form of the following irregular verbs are similar or the same, but the past form differs. Study the words in the table below.

Present forms (base) Past forms Participle forms come
Come

Run

Become

Came

Ran

Became

Come

Run

Become

Examine the following sentences:

(i)         The man comes to Ibadan every week. (Present)

(ii)        They have come from Abuja. (Participle)

(iii)       She will come tomorrow. (Future)

 Progression

The verb come occurs in the three sentences above but they perform different functions. In sentence 1, come functions as the present tense; in sentence 2, come functions as the perfective or participle tense and in sentence 3, come functions as the future tense.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt the that present form (base) and participle form of the following irregular verbs are similar or the same, the  but past form differs.  We shall continue to discuss more features in the next lesson.

Script 5

Subject: English

Topic:  Verb Forms

Lesson: Features of Irregular Verbs

 Introduction

In the previous lesson, we discussed how the first feature of irregular verbs is formed. We shall discuss the fifth feature in this lesson.

Presentation

The present (base) form, the past form and the participle form of the following verbs are similar or identical. Therefore, there is no chance whatsoever until they are used in the sentences. Look at the table below.

Present forms (Base) Past forms Participle forms
Cast

Set

Shed

Put

Cost

Broadcast

Cut

Split

Burst

Cast

Set

Shed

Put

Cost

Broadcast

Cut

Split

Burst

Cast

Set

Shed

Put

Cost

Broadcast

Cut

Split

Burst

Although, the three forms are the same, they perform different functions in the sentences. Consider the features below.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learnt that the present (base) form, the past form and the participle form of the following verbs are similar or identical.

Therefore, there is no change whatsoever until they are used in the sentences. We shall discuss how the verb forms are used differently and correctly in the sentences.

 

 

 

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