Administration in school is the process of getting something done relatively easily with the help of other people working in a conducive environment and using relevant materials to accomplish the purpose of the enterprise.
The primary school is an institution for children aged normally 6-11 years. After the pupils in primary schools have passed satisfactorily, they will be promoted to secondary schools.
School administration may therefore be conceived structurally as the hierarchy of subordinate-superordinate relationships within a social system and functionally this hierarchy of relationships is the locus for allocating and integrating roles and facilities to achieve the goals of the social system.
These functional relationships consist of the assignment of status, provision of facilities, organization of procedures, regulation of activities, and the evaluation of performance, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
School administrative tasks include personnel, financial, instructional, human relations, and physical plant. The list may also include interscholastic athletics, sports and games, music, drama, publication, assemblies, school, clubs, school governments, evaluation, testing, and record keeping.
Administrative processes include planning, organizing, staffing, and directing. The tasks of school administration vary with the type of school: private or public, day or boarding, etc.
There are bodies responsible for the smooth running of primary education. Each of these bodies has a way they perform its role in primary education in Nigeria. The following bodies are as follows:
According to Decree 96 of 1993, the following bodies are responsible for primary education:
- National Primary Education Commission
- Prescribes the minimum standards of primary education throughout Nigeria.
- Receives the NPE fund from the FG and gives it to the SPEB (of each state/FCT) and any agency responsible for FG-sponsored Special Primary Education Projects.
- Collate after consultation with all the state Governments, period master plans for a balanced and coordinated development of primary education in Nigeria.
- Collate, analyze and publish information relating to primary education in Nigeria.
- Carrying out a regular personnel audit in each state of the Federation.
The President of the Federation appoints an Executive Secretary for the Commission who shall hold office for five years in the first instance.
The NPE Fund is deducted from the Federation Account and disbursed as follows;
- 50% equality of states;
- 30% based on school enrolment; and
- 20% to all the educationally disadvantaged states- Adamawa, Benue, Borno, CR, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Niger, Katsina, Plateau, River, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe.
- State Primary Education Board (SPEB)
- Management of the primary schools in the State.
- Recruitment, appointment, promotion, and discipline of teaching and non-teaching staff of GL07 and above.
- Posting and development of staff including inter-state transfers.
- Fund disbursement from both Federal and State sources.
- Setting up an effective functional supervisory unit.
- Retirement and re-absorption of teachers.
- Undertaking new capital projects.
- Responsible for the approval, training, and retraining of teaching and non-teaching staff.
- Assessing Funding of salaries and allowances of both teaching and non-teaching staff on the scheme of service prepared by the State Government.
- Annual auditing of accounts.
Each Education Board establishes and maintains a separate account into which has to be paid and credit all payments made to it (by the FG/SG or any other source).
There is a full-time Chairman as the Chief Executive and accounting officer of the Board. (He must be an educationalist).
There are other two full-time members appointed by the Government on the recommendation of the Commissioner for Education; others are ex-officio members to represent the Ministry of Education and the Local Government, representatives of the PTA in the State, state wing of NUT, States’ Women Group and the FME (Inspectorate).
The Secretary to the Board must be an experienced educationalist appointed by the Governor.
- Local Government Education Authority
- Day-to-day administration of the primary schools in its area of jurisdiction.
- Appointment, posting, transfer, promotion, and discipline of staff on GL 01-06.
- Making recommendations to the SPEB on the promotion and discipline of officers on GL 07 and above in its area of jurisdiction.
- Submission of annual estimates, annual accounts, and monthly returns to the SPEB.
- Payment of salaries allowances and benefits to all teaching and non-teaching staff in the LGA.
- Undertaking general maintenance of primary schools in the LGA.
- Stimulating, promoting, and encouraging community participation in the running of primary schools in the LGA.
- Ensuring full enrolment and attendance in schools.
There is a part-time Chairman and a full-time Secretary. Other members are the representatives of the Ministry of Education, the NUT, Women’s groups, religious groups, PTA, and traditional rulers.
- District Education Committee
- Recommending to the LGEA, the necessary repairs and renovation of buildings in the district; the adequacy of the teaching and non-teaching staff; and the adequacy of teaching equipment and materials in the area.
- Promoting and encouraging communal interest and participation in the running of primary schools in the area.
- Keeping the LGEA informed of all educational problems in the area.
The Secretary to the DEC is a school headmaster in the locality. The Chairman is a community leader. Other members include the representatives of the PTA, NUT, women’s groups, religious leaders, and the business community.
- National Teachers’ Institute (NTI)
- Production of instructional materials.
- Upgrading of teachers through distant learning services for the award of TC 11 and NCE.
- Registration of teachers.
- Local Inspectorate (Ministry of Education) LIE
- Supervision/inspection of schools.
- Representative of the Ministry of Education at the LG level/link through the schools in the LG area and the supervision of state examinations.
- Posting of primary school pupils to the secondary schools
- State Ministry of Education
- Disbursing funds for education equipment, materials, and facilities.
- Establishment and closure of schools.
- Prescribing conditions of service for teachers, tenure, retirement, benefits, teachers’ qualifications, and certification.
- Admission policies into primary and secondary schools.
- Formulation policies on subjects taught in the primary schools.
- Formulation of school calendars.
The above bodies have particular roles they perform in the smooth running of primary education in Nigeria. They also try to give all primary schools useful information and updates on the improvement in the primary schools in Nigeria.