Depression can be defined as a mood disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, and loss of joy.
Causes of depression
- Brain chemistry: Brain chemistry is the way we control our mood, become more creative, understand our emotions and become more productive. If all these work abnormally, depression will set in.
- Genetics: Depression is caused by hereditary genetics. This means that depression can be inherited from parents, grandparents, grandsons, granddaughters, etc.
- Life events: The way we live our life is another way to depression. If we cannot live a life that suits us, it can lead to depression.
- Medical conditions: There are medical challenges that can lead to depression such as broken legs and arms, chronic diseases, infections, long-time sicknesses, etc.
- Medication: If a sick person misuses drugs or is affected by medication, he or she can have depression.
- Personality: A person who lost his or her job; who lost his wife or her husband or her/his child can develop depression.
Predisposing factors of depression
- Bereavement (loss of loved ones): This can be seen as a loss of loved ones. The loss of loved ones can lead to depression.
- Loss of job: The loss of the job can lead to depression.
- Financial problem: If a person is affected by a financial issue, the person can have depression. Depression can set in because he or she may not be able to take care of what he or she wants
- Experiencing acute stress: Acute stress at home or work can lead to depression. Also, stress during childbirth and child nursing can lead to depression.
- Having a lack of successful coping strategies: If the success we think to happen is not coming, depression can set in.
- Hereditary factors: Depression can be contagious from parents.
- Drug, e.g. corticosteroids, beta blockers: Taking too much of drugs can lead to depression.
- Relationship issues: If the relationship with someone is poor, it can lead to depression. For example, if the parents fail to take care of the child properly and the child is left alone always, such a child can develop depression.
- Using recreational drugs, e.g. alcohol, amphetamines: Taking too much alcohol
- Having a sustained head injury: If a person has a head injury, they may have depression.
- Chronic condition, e.g. DM, COPD: As discussed above, chronic diseases or conditions can cause depression or when we live with chronic pain.
- Lacking social support: Social support is very important. But if one lacks it, it may lead to depression. For example, if a child sees his mates who are well-sound socially and she is poorly sound, she will begin to think otherwise. From there, depression will set in.
Types of depression
- Major depressive disorder
- Bipolar depression
- Perinatal and postpartum depression
- Persistent depressive disorder
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
- Psychotic depression
- Seasonal affective disorder
- Clinical depression
Signs and symptoms of depression
- Overwhelming feelings of sadness feelings empty
- Loss of interest/pleasure in activities previously enjoyed
- Significant change in weight or appetite
- Feeling of worthlessness, guilt, or helplessness
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Being physically slowed down or restlessness
- Difficulty thinking or concentrating or indecisiveness
- Frequent thoughts of death or suicide
- Experiencing physical problems such as headaches, stomachache, or sexual dysfunction
Symptoms in males
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Display of anger
- Avoiding family and social situations
- Working without a break
- Display abusive/controlling behavior in the relationship
Symptoms in young adults
- Difficulty concentrating on schoolwork
- Sleeping too much
- Decrease/increase in appetite
- Feeling irritable
- Withdrawing from friends and family
- Feeling guilty helpless or worthless
Symptoms in children
- Low energy
- Defiant behavior
- Vocal outbursts
How to manage depression
- Self-help: One of the active management of depression is to help oneself. If you know that depression wants to set in, try to adjust and have it in mind that depression kills in time.
- Counselling: Counselling is a psychological specialty that abounds research and is applied for work. Seeking counseling may end the depression.
- Alternative medicine: Special drugs can be used to terminate depression. But it is important to consult physicians or specialists to prescribe the appropriate drugs.
- Medication, e.g. antidepressant: A medication, also known as a medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicine drug, or simply drug is used to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent diseases. Using the right medications guided by specialists can end reduce depression.
- Brain stimulation therapy: When we talk about brain stimulation, we talk about the neurosurgical procedure which involves the placement of a medical device called a neurostimulator.
- School-based programs: If there are school-based programs to enhance positive coping patterns in children and adolescents. That is community prevention.
When you are going through depression, you can treat it with different methods prescribed by specialists. Those effective treatments will help with recovery. When you treat it earlier you will get better result.
According to WHO, It is more common in females than males. You can seize the opportunity of their psychological intervention manuals made for depression.