Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.
Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.
The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behavior of the learners.
The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Intransitive Verbs
Can you say ‘I dance music; the man dies the death; the girl sleep and they walk? No! Why? The verbs ‘dance, die, sleep and walk cannot admit objects.
Here, we are saying that the verbs in clauses are non-transitive if they do not take the direct objects. For example:
‘dances’ in the clause above is intransitive because it does not welcome an object.
Intransitive verbs may occur without taking any word after. For example:
- The protagonist died..
- The children are dancing.
Two verbs are possible as intransitive verbs. For example:
- Professor Ola always sits down and stands up.
- The boy has come and has gone.
Certain intransitive verbs may be followed by immediate adverbials. For example:
- Banji was running fast.
- You come early.
The adverbials that follow the verbs in the sentences above are not objects. Therefore, was running and come are intransitive verbs.
In this lesson, we have learned that an intransitive verb is a verb that does not admit or welcome any direct object. We shall continue to discuss stative verbs in the next lesson.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: The Concept of Stative Verbs
Can you say I am knowing …Bose is resembling …’‘The students are stating …’‘ They are laughing …’ ‘Are you understanding my …?’‘ Are they preferring this?’ ‘Are we borrowing that …?’ ‘Am I seeing it?’ ‘Are you loving him?’? If the answer is NO!
Certain verbs cannot be used as continuous verbs. Such verbs are stative verbs. It looks strange to use a stative verb as the present continuous tense with the subject(s) it follows.
For example: ‘I love you so much is familiar and correct but it is grammatically odd to say: ‘I am loving you so much. Let us look at some examples below
Stative verbs are many but some of them arrive, laugh, know, love, seem, prefer, deny, offer, see, remember, resemble, state, own, understand, like, borrow, lend, lack, etc.
In this lesson, we have learned that a stative verb is an exceptional verb that can only be used in the present tense and the simple tense or in most cases, the past tense with the subject(s) preceding it. We shall continue to discuss the features of stative verbs in the next lesson.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Features of Stative Verbs
In the previous lesson, we discuss the concept of stative verbs, in this lesson; we shall explain the features of stative verbs. The following are ways to use stative verbs.
Stative verbs can be simple tenses, and be used with the subjects. For example:
(i) I know your thought.
(ii) Bose resembles his sister.
(iii) The students state four types of nouns.
(iv) I remember what you said.
(v) They laugh with me loudly.
When asking questions, stative verbs are used as simple tense. For example:
(i) Do/can/will you understand my explanation?
(ii) Do/can/will they prefer this?
(iii) Could/should we borrow that textbook?
(iv) Did/could/would I see it?
(v) Do/will/can you love him?
Note that all stative verbs can also be used as past tense and some of them as perfect tense. For example:
(i) That man offered us some beverages.
(ii) She said she liked me.
(iii) Segun denied that he was a thief.
(iv) They have arrived from Abuja.
(v) I have lent a pen to Ife.
Not all stative verbs can be used as perfective verbs. Therefore, don’t say:
(i) Most of them have laughed at me.
(ii) The man has believed us.
(iii) My younger brother had owed me N4,000.0
Some stative verbs can be used only as gerunds within the sentences. For example:
(i) I heard you laughing in the room.
(ii) The man visited a town lacking basic amenities.
In this lesson, we have learned some features of state verbs that expose us to how to use them. We shall continue to discuss Verbs + (Ing) Phrases.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Verbs + (Ing) Phrases
I am stop, I am busy, I am remember; I am enjoy; I am worth; I am prefer; I am avoid and the only verb we are used with is continuous tense.
The continuous tense is the form of the verb which ends with ‘-ing’. For example, ‘I am busy reading’, ‘Reading’ in the above sentence is an ‘-ing phrase’. [v-ing].
The following verbs are ‘ing phrases: stop, busy (adj.), remember, enjoy, like, love, dislike, avoid, worth (adj.), no use (adj.), start, begin, prefer, hate, etc.
It should be noted that a verb that takes an ‘-ing phrase’ is [V + Ing]. Consider the examples below.
(i) Will you stop talking?
(ii) The children enjoyed listening to the stories. V.
(iii) I always avoid cheating people.
(iv) I preferred eating rice to beans.
(v) Dayo remembered doing his assignment
In the examples above, ‘talking, listening, cheating, eating, and doing’ are ‘ing phrases.
In this lesson, we have learned that a verb + ing phrase is the verb followed by continuous tense. We shall continue to discuss the functional verbs (Modals) in the next lesson.
Topic: Verb Forms
Lesson: Functional Verbs (Modals 1)
Every single thing in life has its functions. Do you know that a car has its functions? A computer has its functions and each part of the body has functions. So also, verbs have functions, especially modal verbs.
Modal auxiliaries are used to express or perform certain functions. Consider the functions below.
(i) Will is used as a future tense, e.g.
I will see you tomorrow. (Present future tense)
(ii) It is used to indicate willingness and requests, e.g.
If I get home, I will read before I sleep. (Willingness)
Will you assist me to wash those plates? (Request)
(iii) It is used to form conditional tense, e.g.
If the students fail to read, they will fail their examinations. (Conditional)
(iv) It is used to express what habitual is, e. g.
A good teacher will prepare very well before going to the class. (Habit)
(i) Would is used to show the past future tense, e.g.
I would be there. (Past future)
(ii) Would is used to express direct speech in the past, e.g.
I said, ‘You would pass your examinations’. (Direct speech)
(iii) It is used in the conditional tense, e.g.
The protagonist would have not died if he hadn’t acted. (Conditional)
(iv) It is used to indicate promise, e.g.
I will attend your wedding ceremony. (Promise)
(v) It is used to show assurance, e.g.
I would be there next week. (Assurance)
(i) Shall is used to make an offer, e.g.
Shall we sit down? (Offer)
(ii) It is used to make suggestions, e.g.
Shall we meet here tomorrow? (Suggestion)
(iii) It is used to express assurance, e.g.
It shall be well with you. (Assurance)
(iv) It is used to act as a mark of determination or decision on the part of the speaker(s), e.g.
That criminal shall be murdered. (Decision)
In this lesson, we have learned some functional verbs that discuss offers, suggestions, assurance, discussion, conditional, permission, willingness, request, and tenses. We shall continue reading the sample and discuss further functional words in the next lesson.