How My Teacher Succeeded in Teaching Me Formation of Adverbs

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After many attempts to understand the clues and rudiments how to form adverbs and how each formation is used in the sentences to distinguish them from other word classes such as adjectives, prepositions, etc.

I met a teacher who made each step easier for me. He attempted the formation step by step with illuminating examples. There are things to note in forming adverbs. Consider them one after the other.

Formation 1

  1. Some adverbs are realized if the suffix ‘-ly’ is added to adjectives. For example
Adjectives   Suffix ‘-ly’ Adverbs[adj+ ly = adv]
Courageous

Meticulous

Daring

Fluent

Greedy

Scrupulous

Deliberate

Amazing

Astounding

Regular

Sagacious

Legible

High

Authentic

Attentive

Notable

Beautiful

Calm

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

Courageously

Meticulously

Daringly

Fluently

Greedily

Scrupulously

Deliberately

Amazingly

Astoundingly

Regularly

Sagaciously

Legibly

Highly

Authentically

Attentively

Notably

Beautifully

Calmly

Examples

You should note that we can realise adverbs from the only adjectives to which the suffix- ‘ly’ is added. Consider the sentences below.

(i)         That teacher writes legibly on the board.

(ii)        The student listened attentively.

(iii)       She spoke eloquently in the meeting.

(iv)       They deliberately picked the baskets.

(v)        Daringly, the hunter killed the lion.

Important Things to Note

If, however, the suffix ‘-ly’ is added to a noun, it becomes or changes to an adjective.

Nouns   Suffix –ly Adjectives
Friend

World

Cost

Father

+

+

+

+

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

-ly ®

Friendly

Worldly

Costly

Fatherly

Examples

Therefore, if the suffix –ly is added to an adjective, it becomes an adverb but if the suffix –ly is added to a noun, it becomes an adjective.

Consider the sentences below.

(i)         Toyin is very friendly.

(ii)        The Plasma Television is costly.

(iii)       The motherly advice is good.

(iv)       The worldly slangs have affected many youths.

Formation 2

  1. The words that can serve as the pre-modifiers of adjectives and adverbs are said to be adverbs. For example:
too quite
so rather
very more
much most

Examples

Consider the sentences below.

(i)         God is so nice.

(ii)        I am very interested in that position.

(iii)       The passage is quite understood.

(iv)       The food is too hot.

Formation 3

  1. If certain words do not have the suffix ‘-ly’ and they express time, place, and frequency, such words are adverbs. For example:
Time Place Frequency
Today

Yesterday

Last week

Soon

Since

Time

Last night

At 2:00 pm

Tomorrow

Now

Tonight

Day before yesterday

Week after next

At dawn

Everywhere

Outside

Inside

At Backyard

In front

Place

At home

Upstairs

Downstairs

Whereabouts

Backwards

Somewhere

Outwards

Indoors

Seldom

Always

Often

Never

Twice

Everyday

Sometimes

Ever

Once

Every time

All the time

 

Examples

Consider the sentences below.

(i)         I will see you next week.

(ii)        She stood upstairs.

(iii)       He will be there soon.

(iv)       They stay inside.

(v)        Every day, I will be visiting you.

Important Things to Note

Some of the examples above are forms of prepositional phrases but they function as adverbs.

The word seldom is not an adjective but an adverb. But don’t say:

She seldomly comes to school.

The word seldomly does not exist as an adverb. Instead, say:

She seldom comes to school.

Formation 4

  1. Certain adverbs are called adverbial linkers. They are used to connect the sentences or paragraphs. For example:
Furthermore

However

More so

Moreover

Altogether

Out of luck

Nevertheless

To my surprise

In all honesty

Almost

On the other hand

In addition

In conclusion

Therefore

So

Yet

Also

In contrast

Examples

Most of the time, the adverbs above occur at the beginning of the sentences or within the sentences. They rarely appear at the end of the sentences. For example:

(i)         Out of luck, he loses the prize.

(ii)        The man almost finishes his work.

(iii)       To my surprise, that protagonist died at the end of the story.

(iv)       Adjectives modify nouns; adverbs on the other hand modify verbs.

Formation 5

  1. Some words can both be used as adjectives and adverbs. The way they are used in the sentences will determine whether they are adjectives or adverbs. For example:
Adjectives Adverbs
Late

Long

First

Great

Early

Late

Long

First

Great

Early

Examples

Consider the illustrations below.

(A)       Late

(i)         Bola is late to school today. (Adjective)

(ii)        Bola comes late to school today. (Adverb)

The word late is used in the sentence above to determine both adjectives and adverbs. ‘Late’ in sentence (i) serves as a predicative adjective, occurring after a verb but ‘late’ in the sentence (ii) serves as an adverb, modifying the verb comes.

(B)       Long

(i)         The assignment will take me a long time before I finish it. (Adjective)

(ii)        The poor are long suffering from penury. (Adverb)

The ‘long’ ina  sentence (i) serves as a distributive adjective, qualifying the noun time. However, the ‘long’ in sentence (ii) serves as an adverb, modifying the verb are or are suffering.

(C)       First

(i)         I don’t like the first orange. (Adjective)

(ii)        I will do this first. (Adverb)

The ‘first’ in sentence (i) serves as a distributive adjective, qualifying the noun orange while the ‘first’ a in a sentence (ii), serves as an adverb, modifying the verb ‘will do’.

(D)       Great

(i)         It is great. (Adjective)

(ii)        You perform great. (Adverb)

In sentence (i), the ‘great’ serves as a predicative adjective, occurring after the verb is but in sentence (ii), the ‘great’ serves as an adverb, modifying the verb perform.

Evaluation

  1. Explain the concept of adverbs with illustrations.
  2. Construct four sentences relevant to each of the following:

(a)        Adverbs modifying verbs

(b)        Adverbs modifying adjectives

(c)        Adverbs modifying adverbs

(d)       Adverbs modifying prepositional phrases.

  1. Use the following in the sentences as adverbs:

(a) late             (b) first            (c) long            (d) great

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