This is the news and information role of the media. The media has taken the role of the village guards who used to be on the lookout in case of an attack in a community. For a business to develop, the following communication tools are needed to understand.
Today, journalists go out searching for information. Surveillance function can be classified into: first, the warning surveillance is when the media tells about threats e.g. terrorism, inflation, volcanoes, etc.
Instrumental surveillance – is with the transmission of information that is useful and helpful in everyday life e.g. stock prices, new products, films in theaters, fashion ideas, etc.
This function deals with the supply of information and facts as well as providing the ultimate meaning and significance of events.
Not everything that happens in the world can be included in the newspaper, TV or broadcast, or radio. Media professionals, therefore, select events to the aired and how much prominence to be given to such events.
Examples of interpretation functions are articles that analyze the cause of an event and others that discuss the implication of life.
The following are the forms of interpretation: editorial cartoons, features stories, books, records, etc. interpretation function is significant in that the audience is exposed to a large number of views more than he/she could have come in contact with through personal channels hence one can evaluate his/her judgment before concluding.
It also provides a wide range of expertise hence one can read or hear the views of various experts before making a decision.
Mass media can join different elements of society that are not directly connected.
For example, mass advertising tries to link sellers and possible buyers through reading newspapers, and MPS keep in touch with their constituents. E.g. publicity about people suffering from the same sickness comes together and prompts the government to take action.
Socialization is a way an individual comes to adopt the behaviors and values of a group. After reading, watching, or listening we come to know how people live, act and what values are important.
For example, the media tries to stereotype people on ethnicity, tribe, religion, etc. which make us have an idea of the behaviors of different people media portrays Muslims as terrorists, which makes many people far joining this religion.
Sometimes, the media try to instill values and behavior in the audience e.g. newspaper reports on whether accident victims were wearing seat belts while traveling.
Mass communication has helped in stabilizing society as the communication values and experience is passed down to all members of the society.
Motion pictures and sound recordings are meant for entertainment. Research has shown that newspapers contain 12-14% entertainment content such as sports news.
Three-quarter of TV programs is entertainment, such as movies among other forms. Entertainment on the radio depends on the radio’s format.
For example, radio Jambo has a lot of its sessions set for sports while others like saying have mainly Christian content. Magazines and daily papers have entertainment content like the sports horoscopes among others.
Public Relation (PR)
Public relation (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization, such as a business, government agency, or a non-profit organization.
Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require payment.
An example of good public relations would generate an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the clients to be advertised next to the article.
Aims: Public relations aim to inform the public, prospective customers, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders and ultimately persuade them to maintain a certain view about the organization, its leadership, product, or political decision.
(2) public relations professionals typically work for PR and marketing firms, businesses and companies, government, government agencies, and public officials as PIOs and non-government organizations and non-profit organizations.
Public relations specialist (PRS): public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organization’s target audience, the media, and other opinion leaders.
Common responsibilities include designing communications campaigns, writing news releases and other content for news, working with the press, arranging interviews for company spokespeople, writing speeches for company leaders, acting as an organization’s spoke person, preparing clients for the press conference, media interviews, and speeches, writing website and social media content, managing company reputation (crisis management) managing internal communications, and marketing activities like brand awareness and event management.
Specific Relations Disciplines
Financial Public Relations: communicating financial results and business strategies
Consumer/lifestyle public relation: gaining publicity for a particular product or service.
Crisis communication: responding in a crisis
Internal communications: communicating within the company itself
Food-centric relations: communicating specific information centered on foods, beverages, and wine
Media relations: a public relations function that involves building and maintaining close relationships with the news media so that they can sell and promote a business.
Government relations: Engaging government departments to influence public policy
Activities: within each discipline, typical activities include publicity events, speaking opportunities, press releases, newsletters, blogs, social media, press kits, and outbound communication to members of the press.
Audience targeting: A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience and tailor messages to be relevant to each audience.
All audiences are stakeholders but not all stakeholders are audiences. For example, if a charity commissions a public relations aging to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease.
The charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders, but the audience is anyone likely to donate money public relations experts possesses deep skills in media relations, market positioning, and branding.
Messaging: Messaging is the process of creating a consistent story around a product, person, company, or service.
Messaging aims at avoiding having readers receive contradicting or confusing information that will instill doubt in their purchasing choice or other decisions that have an impact on the company.
Social media marketing: Digital marketing is the use of internet tools and technologies, such as search engines, web 20 social bookmarking, new media relations, blogging, and social media interactions.
PR allows companies and organizations to disseminate information without relying solely on mainstream publications and communicate directly with the public, customers, and prospects.
PR practitioners have always relied on the media such as TV, radio, and magazines, to promote their ideas and messages tailored specifically to a target audience.
Steps to measure online public relations effectiveness
Employment: Measure the number of people who engaged with an item (social shares likes and comments)
Impressions: Measure the number of people who may have viewed an item
Items: Measure any content (blog posts, articles, etc) that originally appeared as digital media.
Mentions: Measure how many online items mention the brand, organization, or product.
Reach: Measure how far the PR campaign managed to penetrate overall and in terms of a particular audience.
Ethics: Public relations professionals both serve the public’s interest and private interests of businesses, associations, non-profit organizations, and governments.
Negative: Negative public relations, also called dark public relations (DPR) and destroying the target” reputation objective in DPR is to discredit someone. Else, who may pose a threat to the client’s business? Or be a political
Any information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, and to promote a political cause or point of view is propaganda.
In general, a message is designed to persuade its intended audience to think and behave in a certain manner. Thus advertising is commercial propaganda.