When a microorganism enters a person’s body and causes harm what occurs is an infection. An infectious disease is when germs get into the body, increase in the body in number and cause a sensitive and harmful reaction in the body.
Types of infections
- 1 Types of infections
- 2 1. Viral infections
- 3 Treatment
- 4 2. Bacterial infections
- 5 Treatment
- 6 3. Fungal infections
- 7 Treatment
- 8 4. Parasitic infections
- 9 Treatment
- 10 Symptoms and causes of infectious diseases
- 11 1. Symptoms
- 12 2. Causes
- 13 How to control/prevent infections
- 14 1. Wash your hands.
- 15 2. Clean surface areas.
- 16 3. Receive recommended vaccinations.
- 17 4. Disinfect rooms having high bacterial concentrations.
- 18 5. Use condoms or abstain altogether.
- 19 6. Use vaccines.
Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.
1. Viral infections
Viral infections are infections occurring as a result of a virus. There are millions of viruses existing, though not more than 5,000 types were identified up to date.
Viral diseases usually contain a genetic code and a piece of protein and fat molecules. Viral infections are an item of information within a protective shell.
There are many examples of viral infections such as encephalitis, meningitis, COVID-19, gastroenteritis, herpes, warts, HIV, hepatitis C, polio, zika virus, influenza (flu), Ebola, etc.
Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes. Antiviral drugs can either prevent the virus from reproducing or boost the host’s immune system to counter the effects of the virus.
Be informed that antibiotics cannot cure viruses. Therefore, most treatments are aimed to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without any assistance from medication.
You can manage most viral infections with over-the-counter medications for your symptoms until you feel better
2. Bacterial infections
Bacterial infections are tiny organisms with instructions written on a small piece of DNA. Bacteria can be found both on the skin and inside our bodies. Though many bacterial infections are dangerous, certain bacterial infections release toxins.
Research has it that bacterial infections tend to live virtually in any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold. It has been found that there are trillions of strains of bacterial infections but few of them cause diseases in humans.
There are examples of bacterial infections such as cholera, diphtheria, dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, typhus, bubonic plague, bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, gastritis, eye infections, food poisoning, skin infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), upper respiratory tract infection, sinusitis, etc.
Antibiotic medications are effective against bacteria Doctors can indeed treat bacterial infections with antibiotics.
This is because some strains, however, become resistant and can survive the treatment. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.
3. Fungal infections
Similar to bacteria, there are different fungal infections. They live both on and inside the body. When your fungi infections get overgrown into the body system through the mouth, your nose or a cut in your skin will get sick.
Approximately, up to 5.1 million fungi species, the body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms.
This lines the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body. There are examples of fungi infections such as candidiasis, valley fever, histoplasmosis, athlete’s foot, ringworm, eye infections, thrush, fungi nail infections, etc.
Antibiotics can be effective if it is used for a long time. It is important to build your immune system, especially for those living with HIV or diabetes or receiving chemotherapy treatment. Fungal infections can be treated with antifungal medications.
4. Parasitic infections
Parasitic infections are called parasites that use the bodies of other organisms to live and reproduce. Parasitic infections include worms (helminths) and some single-celled organisms (protozoa). There are other examples such as giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworms, pinworms, etc.
Parasites can be treated with antiparasitic drugs, such as mebendazole. Antibiotic drugs and soap can control and cure parasites. Good nutrition can also soothe parasitic infections.
Symptoms and causes of infectious diseases
Symptoms of infectious diseases are concerned with the illness. Most local symptoms such as rash and itching are caused by fungal infections.
Viral and bacterial infections have symptoms in many areas of the body such as fever, cough, fatigue, congestion, muscle aches, headaches, chills, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, etc.
Various agents cause infectious diseases to invade the body from the outside. The agents include the following: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, prions, etc.
You may develop symptoms when your cells are damaged or destroyed by the invading organism and as your immune system responds to the infection.
How to control/prevent infections
There is no single method for preventing all infectious diseases. It appears in different ways. We shall outline various ways of preventing/controlling infections:
1. Wash your hands.
It is important to wash your hands often, especially before and after preparing food and after using the bathroom. Also, when you come from the toilet, try to wash and clean your hands.
2. Clean surface areas.
Make sure you clean surface areas and avoid keeping perishable food at room temperature for too long while preparing a meal. Too much cold food can still cause infections. Do not keep perishing food in a cold place for too long time.
3. Receive recommended vaccinations.
It is a good thing to receive any recommended vaccinations and keep them up to date and take antibiotics with a prescription and be sure to complete the recommended course, even if symptoms improve at an earlier stage.
4. Disinfect rooms having high bacterial concentrations.
This is important to disinfect rooms that may have high concentrations of bacteria including the kitchen and the bathroom and reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by receiving regular STI checks.
5. Use condoms or abstain altogether.
Ensure that you use condoms or abstain altogether while avoiding sharing personal items including toothbrushes, combs, razor blades, drinking glasses, and kitchen utensils, and following a doctor’s advice about traveling or working while living with an infectious disease.
6. Use vaccines.
Do you know that vaccines reduce your risk of getting an infectious disease by training your immune system to recognize and fight off infections from harmful invaders?
While people sometimes still get sick with a disease after getting vaccinated for it, your symptoms are usually less severe than they would’ve been without the vaccination. So, there is no doubt that vaccines are available for many common infectious diseases.