Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.
Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.
The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behavior of the learners.
The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.
Topic: Phrasal Verbs
Lesson: The Concept of Phrasal Verbs
Have you noticed that the different parts make s body? Different branches make a tree and different people make a group?
So also, different parts of speech make a phrasal verb. The words that make a phrasal verb may be prepositions, adverbs, or verbs.
These two or three come together to form a phrasal verb and that is why phrasal does not have an ordinary meaning.
For example, the word blow in is a combination of the verb (blow) and preposition (in) to make a phrasal verb blow in.
Apart from the formation of a phrasal verb, it does not also have a literal meaning but figurative meaning; that is, it cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the words that make it.
In the light above, the word blow means to arrive or enter a place abruptly. It does not mean blow. Also, the word takes the means to deceive or to be pregnant. It does not mean to take something inside or in.
In this lesson, we learned that a phrasal verb is simply a combination of a preposition or an adverb and a lexical verb.
Mathematically, a lexical verb plus preposition or adverb is equal to a phrasal verb. Therefore, a phrasal verb serves as an idiomatic expression as its meaning is non-literal. We shall continue in the next lesson.
Topic: Phrasal Verbs
Lesson: Examples and Meanings of Phrasal Verbs
The tree has different examples such as Tick, Ose, Obese, and on; the group of people has different examples such as small group, medium-sized group, and large group.
A phrasal verb has different examples with their meanings. Some of the examples and their meanings are stated below.
Back down is to admit that one is wrong; back out is to fail to fulfill a promise; back up is to support; bite back is to caution oneself from expressing something like a secret or bad
Blow out is to put out my wind; take off is to leave the ground and rise; give up is to abandon the attempt to do something and give out is to come to an end, be exhausted
We can still have more examples and their meanings
Give in is to allow oneself to be defeated, overcome by somebody or something; give away is to give something free of charge; give back is to return or restore; takedown is to write down;
Take off is to remove; take in is to deceive; take away is to lessen/weaken or diminish; buy off/over is to bribe; call off is to cause not to take place and come through is to become what is expected or to continue to live after something dangerous.
In this lesson, we have learned that a phrasal verb has different examples and meanings, combining prepositions, adverbs, or verbs.
Topic: Reported Speech
Lesson: Criteria of Changing Direct Speech to Reported Speech
Do you know that if I say something to you and you want to say what I said? The way you said to another person differently is called a reported speech. Recently, a friend of mine said the president of Nigeria said the fuel will increase in 2022. What my friend did is called a reported speech.
He reported what the president of Nigeria said about the increase in fuel next year. The information we read in the newspapers or magazines is reported speech/information brought by the journalists. Most of the radio news is reported speech/news.
In making speeches and in reporting those speeches correctly, there are rules we have to know.
The rules guiding changing the direct speech to indirect speech can be realized under the following Criteria: modifications, tense in sequence, changes in pronouns, changes in demonstratives, changes in adverbial, questions (interrogatives), and the modal (must).
In this lesson, we have learned seven criteria to be considered in changing direct speech to indirect/reported speech. We shall continue in the next lesson.
Topic: Reported Speech
Lesson: Rule of Modifications
Do you know that rules are stated so that things can be done right? If things are bounded by rules, we should be able to prove it. To report the statements of what someone has said, we should follow the rules of doing so.
The first rule to report what someone has said (direct speech) is modification. Here, when changing a sentence from a direct speech to a reported speech, certain aspects of the direct speech have to be changed too.
Modifications mean change. In the process, the time and place of the original statements, the person referred to in the statements and the use of certain language may change.
Let us consider the following illustrations. In the sentences:
Kemi told me, ‘I will visit you tomorrow.’
Bashir asked them, ‘Will you buy these books.’
The sentences above may be changed to the reported speech below.
Kemi told me that she would visit me the following day.
Bashir asked them whether/if they would buy those books.
In the reported speeches above, certain aspects change in the process of the report.
In this lesson, we have learned that some changes may occur in the forms of tenses of the verb, adverbial reference of time, place references, and certain pronouns when changing from direct speech to the reported speech. We shall continue in the next lesson.
Topic: Reported Speech
Lesson: Rule of Tense Sequence
In our house, we used to arrange our rooms, especially our sitting room so that they can be in order or sequence. If our sitting room is not in sequence, it will not be good in looks. So alsase reported speech must be in sequence.
Sequence of tense means how the tense of a verb in a reported clause is rearranged in a reported statement. Consider the illustrations below.
When the verb of a reported clause is a present form, then the tense of a verb in the reported statement remains unchanged. But if the verb of a reported clause is the past tense, then the verb will change to the past in a reported speech. For example:
- Bukky says, ‘I eat rice.’
- The man assures me, ‘I am leaving for abroad tomorrow.’
- Bukky said, ‘I eat rice.’
- The man assured me, ‘I am leaving for abroad tomorrow.
The statements above can be changed to the following reported speeches.
- Bukky says that she eats
- The man assures me that he is leaving for abroad tomorrow.
- Bukky said that she ate’
- The man assured me that he was leaving for abroad tomorrow.
In this lesson, we have learned that the tenses in the direct speeches and reported speeches of the above examples are in the present tenses in numbers 1 and 2.
But the tenses in the direct speeches and reported speeches are in the past tenses in numbers 3 and 4. That is there is a tense sequence both indirect speeches and reported speeches. We shall continue in the next lesson.