Samples of Lesson Notes for Modern-Day Teaching

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Teaching and learning are two sides of the same coin. They are different but related. The activities in the former result in the latter.

Teaching is an activity that is carried out by an agent or medium aimed primarily at modifying how a given target audience will behave, feel or think at the end of a particular experience.

The teacher plans several integrated activities capable of bringing about a change in the behavior of the learners.

The following lesson scripts teach the educators and teachers how teaching-learning should take place in the classroom successfully.

Script 2

Subject: English language

Class: SS 1

Topic:  Demonstrative Pronouns

Introduction

Wow! This is a boy. Yes! The boy is with me. These are boys. Yes! The boys are with me. That is a girl. No! The girl is not with me. Those are girls. No! The girls are not with me. Do you know this, that, these and those always show where the nouns are? Consider the illustrations below.

Presentation

‘This’ refers to a place, a thing, or a person that is near the speaker. For example: ‘This is a pen’ means that ‘the pen’ is not distant or far from the speaker but near him or her, even though it may be with the speaker.

‘These’ refers to a person, a place, or a thing that is not far from the speaker but near him/her. For example, ‘These are my friends’ implies that ‘the speaker’s friends’ are not distant but near him/her, even though they may be with the speaker.

‘That’ refers to a person, a place, or a thing that is far away from the speaker. For example: ‘That is a worn-out television’ means that ‘that television’ is not near, but distant to the speaker. It may not even be around the speaker.

Progression

‘Those’ refers to a person, a thing, or a place that is far away from the speaker as in the case of

‘that’. For example: ‘Those are classrooms’ implies that ‘the classrooms’ that the speaker is

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talking about are not near, but distant to him/her. They may not even be around the speaker.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learned that a demonstrative pronoun is a type of pronoun used to show near reference and distant reference of the subject or the object to the speaker. They include ‘this’, ‘these’, ‘that’, and ‘those’. We shall continue in the next lesson.

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Script 2

Subject: English language

Class: SS 1

Topic:  Indefinite Pronouns

Introduction

Have you heard the words such as anybody, somebody, nobody, anyone, someone, no one, anything, something, nothing, many, some, most, etc? Can you use them in sentences? Those words are indefinite pronouns.

Presentation

Only ‘no-one’ can be written separately but it should not be hyphenated. For example:

No one is here. ‘Noone is here’ or ‘No one is here.’

All examples of ‘any-types’, ‘some-types’, ‘no-types’, ‘whoever’, ‘whichever’, and ‘one’ must be

followed by singular verbs.

(i)         Anybody can go there.

(ii)        Someone has done it.

(iii)       Nobody comes to the meeting.

(iv)       Whoever/whatsoever wants to see me should wait.

It is wrong to say:

(i)         ‘Someone have …’

(ii)        ‘Nobody come …’

(iii)       ‘Whoever want …’

‘Anyone’ or ‘anybody’ or ‘somebody’ or ‘someone’ and ‘nobody’ or ‘no one’ are used in the same sense. For example:

(i)         Somebody/someone calls me.

(ii)        Nobody/no one was there.

‘Many’, ‘some’, and ‘most’ on the other hand, are used with plural verbs because they are plural

indefinite pronouns. Consider the examples below.

(i)         Some of you are imbeciles.

(ii)        Most of the students remain calm.

(iii)       Many of us have become well-known musicians.

It is wrong to say:

(i)         ‘Some … is …’

(ii)        ‘Most … remains …’

(iii)       ‘Many … has …’

Progression

If ‘any-types’ of indefinite pronouns function as objects, they must be preceded by negative

verbs while ‘no-types’ of indefinite pronouns must be preceded by positive verbs. Consider the

following examples:

(i)         I don’t want anybody here.

(ii)        I want nobody here.

It is incorrect to say:

I don’t want nobody here. The reason is that ‘nobody’ is a negative indefinite pronoun, so it does not require a negative verb again.

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Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learned that an indefinite pronoun always shows a part of a whole and does not make a specific reference to any person or thing as occurred in personal pronouns. We shall continue in the next lesson.

Script 3

Subject: English language

Class: SS 1

Topic:  Reciprocal Pronouns

Introduction

I am each; one of many things. I am either; one of two things. I am neither; none of two things. I am each other; two things who are competing. I am one another; more than two things who are competing. All of us are reciprocal pronouns.

Presentation

‘Each’, ‘either’, and ‘neither’ is used with singular verbs. For example:

(i)         Each of those boys has left.

(ii)        Either of the two students has to go there.

(iii)       Neither of them attends the meeting.

It is incorrect to say:

(i)         Eachhave

            (ii)        Eitherhave

(iii)       Neitherattend

Either’ implies one of two persons or things or places and ‘neither’ implies none of two persons

or things or places. So, don’t say:

(i)         There are many people here – either has left.

(ii)        Neither of the three students is around.

Progression

The sentences above are wrong because ‘either’ and ‘neither’ are not meant for more than two persons, places, or things. Instead, it is possible in these ways:

(i)         There are two people here – either has left.

(ii)        Neither of the two students is around.

The sentence (i) implies that ‘One of the two people has left’.

Sentence (ii) suggests that ‘None of the two students is around’.

Each other’ is used to show that the number of people, places, things, or animals involved is not more than two. But ‘one another is used for more than two people, places, things, or animals. Consider the following:

(i)         Jide and Demola are fighting with each other.

(ii)        The J.S.S. 2 students are arguing with one another.

It is grammatically wrong to say:

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(i)         Jide and Demola are fighting with one another.

(ii)        The JSS 2 students are arguing with each other.

Conclusion

In this lesson, we have learned that a reciprocal pronoun is a type of pronoun used to indicate an action expressed by the verb given in a particular sentence. It expresses the interplay between two people or two groups in a given sentence.

Script 4

Subject: English Language

Class:  SS1

Topic: Prepositions ofon, under, inside, and beside”

Introduction

One day, Mr. Okafor, an English teacher, entered a classroom and found Bola sitting on a desk, Mary hiding under a desk, Musa standing beside her friend, and Uche standing inside the large basket in the classroom.

Mr. Okafor quickly wrote the sentences on the board and said:

  1. Bola is sitting at a desk.
  2. Mary is hiding under the desk.
  3. Musa is standing beside
  4. Uche is standing inside the basket.

Mr.  Okafor said that the words underlined in the sentences are prepositions.

Presentation

A teacher also carried a desk in front of the class and placed a book on it. He then asked, “Where is the book placed?”

A student responded, “The book is placed on the desk.”

The teacher put a book the book under the desk and asked, “Where is the book placed?”

Another student responded, “The book is placed under the desk.”

Progression

The teacher also opened the desk and placed the book inside the desk. Then he asked, “Where is the book placed?”

Another student responded, “The book is placed inside the desk’”

The teacher placed the book beside the desk again and asked, “Where is the book placed?”

Another student responded, “The book is placed beside the desk.”

“The words on, under, inside, and beside are prepositions that relate two things together, the teacher said.

Conclusion

So, we have learned from the story and illustrations that “on, under, inside, and beside” are prepositions used to show the relationship between two things. We have also learnt how to make good sentences with them.

PROPER CLASSROOM LESSON PREPARATION: NEW RESEARCH

 

 

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